Eroticism generally plays a major role in mythological stories

Behind Closed Doors

Last night the BBC showed an extremely interesting documentary, Behind Closed Doors, about the works that the great master Titian made for Philip IIe of Spain. The series of works featured mythological scenes in which eroticism, or rather sex, predominated. The documentary was made in connection with an exhibition in the National Gallery about Titian, which opened on March 16 and had to close a few days later. (nice website with video’s https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/exhibitions/titian-love-desire-death/titians-diana-and-actaeon-and-diana-and-callisto) .

One of the works discussed is Diana and Actaeon. Unfortunately, no attention is paid to the African woman behind Diana during this discussion. That has been written about by others, especially Elizabeth McGrath in the past. For example in the catalog Black is beautiful. Rubens to Dumas.

She writes: ‘Here the artist of course exploited the contrast of black and white flesh to direct us to the principal figure; he also appealed to the viewer’s knowledge that Diana, the moon goddess, is Queen of the Night. The black woman, who seeks to protect her mistress from prying eyes, has indeed been connected specifically with night and the idea of death, ‘nigra mors’.

Such associations seem consistent with the look of alarm on the attendant’s face; the apprehensive expression of Diana’s gaunt, black companion hints at an ominous outcome for the unfortunate hunter who has come upon the goddess unawares. But the woman is not so much a symbolic figure as a sort of visual metaphor for the immediacy with which the fiercely chaste Diana contrives to cover herself, as well as a signal that the picture turns on the theme of discovery and concealment. Black figures, before and after Titian, are quite often associated with such themes, even making visual parallels and supplements to the more obvious device of the curtain. The moon goddess is shrouded from the intruder with the help of the figure of darkness who simultaneously provides the setting for, and sets off, her (lunar) brightness.’ BB page 64 In Mythology, black figures were often called Ethiopians.

In the BB catalog I give a brief explanation about Ethiopians in these stories.

Mythology and the Aethiopes, or Ethiopians

025 Cupido OK 94-38
Otto van Veen, ‘The white ligustrum is left to fall, but the black vaccinium is picked’.. Amorum Emblemata .1608

Although Biblical stories and mythological scenes are classified as history paintings, their content has a different import. Eroticism generally plays a major role in the representation of mythological stories which also offer greater opportunity for allusion and double entendre.

The mythological tales depicted in art during the sixteenth and seventeenth century derived from the classics, the works written by ancient Greeks and Romans, who called all black Africans Aethiopes, or Ethiopians. These classical authors, who were much read by artists in the Netherlands, accorded several Ethiopians a role in their stories. The beautiful Andromeda, for example, nearly always portrayed as white, was actually Ethiopian in origin.

Diepenbeeck, Andromeda, engraving
Diepenbeeck Andromeda from Marolles’s ‘Tableaux du Temple des Muses

The Greek poet Homer (c. 800 – c. 750 BC) endowed the Ethiopians with a fabulous, almost supernatural status: he wrote that they came from the East, the land of the sun, were guiltless and fought under their king Memnon on the side of the Trojans in the Trojan War.

Almost certainly Homer did not know the exact location of Ethiopia.The Roman writer Pliny the Elder (AD 23 – 79) was also interested in the Ethiopians whom he described as a handsome race, the tallest people known, with skin burned by the sun and frizzy hair. He believed that Ethiopia lay in Nubia. Later generations were better able to locate the country.

During the lifetime of the Greek writer Heliodorus of Emesa (third century AD) there was lively contact between the Greeks and Romans and ancient Ethiopia, which was also known as Aksum. Heliodorus was partly inspired by these relations to write a romantic tale he called Aethiopica, featuring a black Ethiopian royal couple, a white Andromeda and a white Ethiopian princess. The book was rediscovered centuries later and translated into French in 1547. In 1610 this was followed by a Dutch translation entitled De Moorenlandtsche gheschiedenissen, which enjoyed great, but brief, popularity.

026 Karel van Mander III Persina en Hydaspes
Karel van Mander III, Persina and Hydaspes with the painting of Andromeda, c 1645

Gerbrand Adriansz. Bredero 1585 –1618 wrote a poem in praise of the book and school master David Beck 1594 –1634 noted in his journal, Spiegel van mijn leven, from 1624, that he was reading De Moorenlandtsche gheschiedenissen.

Karel van Mander III Persina and Hydaspes recognise thier daughter Charicleia
Karel van Mander III, Persina and Hydaspes recognise their daughter Chariclea, c 1645
Crispin de Passe II Bernard Picart Chariclea
Crispin de Passe II Bernard Picart Chariclea

Thus the classics formed a source of inspiration for sixteenth and seventeenth-century artists, some of whom included black Ethiopians in their images.

Bernard Picart, Memnon reviving at sunrise 1733. In Tempel der Zanggodinnen

Elizabeth McGrath and Esther Schreuder in the Black is beautiful, Rubens to Dumas catalogue.

See for more on these works (and a black Venus) prof. Elizabeth McGrath in Black is beautiful, Rubens to Dumas (2008)

All photos on this site are not intended for any commercial purpose. I have tried to trace all the rules and rights of all images. As far as I know, these images can be used in this way. If you ar a copyright holder and would like a piece of your work removed or the creditline changed then please do not hesitate to contact me.

For more information, please feel free to contact me   estherschreuderwebsite@gmail.com

Research has been made possible thanks to a contribution of de Mondriaan foundation, AFK and VSB fonds.

About me EN:

In 2008 I was guest curator of the exhibition Black is beautiful. Rubens to Dumas. Important advisors Elizabeth McGrath (Rubens and colleagues, Warburg institute Image of the Black in Western Art collection), Carl Haarnack (slavery in books), Elmer Kolfin (slavery in prints and paintings) en Adi Martis (contemporary art). Gary Schwartz made his research for The Image of the Black in Western Art available to me.

Black beautiful Rubens to Dumas cover
Black beautiful Rubens to Dumas cover

In 2014 my essay ‘Painted Blacks and Radical Imagery in the Netherlands (1900-1940)’ was published in The Image of the Black in Western Art Volume V (I). (ed. David Bindman, Henry Louis Gates jr.)

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is the-image-of-the-black-in-western-art.jpg

In 2017 I published a book about the black servants at the Court of the Royal Van Oranje family. More than a thousand documents have been found about their lives. (only in Dutch)

Cupido en Sideron Cover 30-8-2017

All photos on this site are not intended for any commercial purpose. I have tried to trace all the rules and rights of all images. As far as I know, these images can be used in this way. If you ar a copyright holder and would like a piece of your work removed or the creditline changed then please do not hesitate to contact me.

estherschreuderwebsite@gmail.com

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