• Black characters figure in diverse books of the Bible

Jordaens Mozes en zijn vrouw

Jacob Jordaens, Mozes en zijn Ethiopische vrouw. 1650; olieverf op doekRubenshuis, Antwerpen Collectiebeleid.

Over the centuries the Bible has been translated and retranslated, a process which has sometimes generated varying interpretations of its content.

Black characters figure in diverse books of the Bible, in both the Old and New Testaments. Yet someone described as a Nubian in one book may be referred to as a Moor, an Ethiopian, a Kushite or a Midianite in another. One confusing story of this type concerns Moses’ wife (or wives) who may or may not have been black.

The two biblical scenes most commonly depicted in art come from the New Testament, from the Gospels of St Matthew and St Luke. They are The Nativity of Jesus (Matthew 1:18-25 and Luke 2: 1-7) and The Adoration of the Magi (Matthew 2:1-12).

Jordaens Magi Kassel

Jacob Jordaens
Adoration 1644

Although the Bible only speaks of magi, or wise men, who present Christ with gold, frankincense and myrrh, Christian literature and art transformed these into three kings, one of whom was subsequently represented as black. The arrival of these secular sovereigns bringing gifts to the Christ Child is regarded as an acknowledgement of Jesus’ task in the world.

On the inclusion of a black king in the company Martien de Jong wrote: ‘Being black is more than a picturesque detail. The incarnation of Christ signifies the end of the old covenant between Yahweh and a specific people, which allowed them to regard themselves as exceptional and chosen. The New Covenant was concluded between Christ, God’s son incarnate, and all other peoples and individuals.’

In works of art the kings could function as more than one symbol. They could represent the regions of the world, the ages of man, ambassadors of peace, wealth from faraway, foreign countries, trade with these countries and more.

Around the same time the Black King was introduced into art, circa 1450, The Baptism of the Chamberlain also came into vogue in paintings and prints in the Low Countries. The subject first appeared in miniatures in books of hours, such Charles V’s (Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek); from the mid sixteenth century it emerged in paintings as well. One of the first paintings of this theme from the Low Countries is by Hans van Elburg, from circa 1570 (Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen), although it is also to be found from the sixteenth century in etchings and drawings by artists such as Maerten van Heemskerk or the monogrammist. AC

Doop van de kamerling, Monogrammist AC (16e eeuw), 1524 RP

Doop van de kamerling, Monogrammist AC (16e eeuw), 1524
Collection Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

During the seventeenth century the subject became really popular and acquired an additional function, for both the Protestant Northern Netherlands and the Southern Netherlands, where Catholic Spain held sway, used this biblical story to convey the message that everyone was welcome in their true faith.

De doop van de kamerling, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, 1641 RP-P-1987-185

De doop van de kamerling, Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, 1641 collection Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

Other Biblical subjects in which African figures regularly appeared include Esther and Ahasuerus, The Idolatry of Solomon, The Toilet of Bathsheba, Ecce Homo, The Fiding of Moses, The Last Judgement and Solomon receiving the Queen of Sheba.

Boeckhorst,_Sheba,_Antwerp

Jan Boeckhorst. Queen Sheba and Solomon, collection Antwerp

Not in the bible are figures as

For instance

Agrippina Jan van HoeckeJan van der Hoecke (toeschr.), Sibylle Agrippina. Eind 1630; olieverf op doek, 106,5 x 80,0 cm. Gemäldegalerie, Stiftung museum kunst palast.

And

Heilige vrouw met soldaat

Holy woman and Roman c 1520 Musees Royaux et Histoire Brussel

Esther Schreuder in the  the Black is beautiful, Rubens to Dumas catalugue (2008 Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam)

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